The Black Woman’s Guide to the 2020 CensuS
The Black Woman’s Guide to the 2020 CensuS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
WHAT IS THE 2020 CENSUS?
SO WHAT AND WHO CARES?
The fundamental reason that we hold a census every ten years is to determine our representation in Congress. In 2021, data from the 2020 census will be used to divvy up congressional seats. This process is called apportionment.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau:
“Apportionment is the process of dividing the 435 memberships, or seats, in the U.S. House of Representatives among the 50 states, based on the state population counts that result from each decennial census. The apportionment results will be the first data published from the 2020 census, and those results will determine the number of seats each state will have in the U.S. House of Representatives for the next 10 years.”
There are more reasons that the census is such a powerful political tool:
- The census is used to draw new voting districts. In 2021, states will draw new districts based on 2020 census data. (In most states, the legislature decides district boundaries, which is one reason that it’s so important that we vote in 2020!)
- The federal government uses the data from the census to determine how much federal funding goes to communities, and by extension, into our pockets. In some states, it’s estimated that undercounts lead to a loss of $1,500 per year per person in funding! Many federal programs—like Head Start, SNAP, and the National School Lunch Program—rely on census data to determine how much money each community gets. For a full list of key programs that depend on census data, see Federal Programs Driven By Census Data, below.
- Companies also use census data to determine where to start up, expand, or relocate, which can translate into more or fewer jobs for us.
- Other public agencies and nonprofits use census data to address social and economic challenges in communities. For example, the Centers for Disease Control is using census data to track and map the spread of COVID-19, the new coronavirus.
We know that the census is a very important social, economic, and political tool for Black people, and we need to do everything in our power to ensure that #EveryBlackPersonCounts.
Fun fact: Today, each member of the U.S. House of Representatives represents approximately 747,000 people.
FEDERAL PROGRAMS DRIVEN BY CENSUS DATA
According to the Congressional Black Caucus, “undercounting African Americans in the 2020 census could have real consequences because ‘African-American children and families are disproportionately affected by poverty and federal programs designed to alleviate the impact of poverty.’”
Below are some of the federal programs that rely on census data:
- Head Start – This program provides early childhood education to kids from low-income families. Black children account for 29% of the kids in the program.
- Title I Grants – These grants provide federal resources to schools with high numbers of low-income children and are intended to help all students fulfill state academic requirements.
- Special Education Grants – These grants are used to assist children with disabilities in order to help schools meet the requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). In 2012–2013, approximately 15% of Black children needed IDEA resources.
- Child Care and Development Fund – This fund helps low-income parents access childcare so that they can go to work or school. Black children represented 41% of the children in this program in 2015.
- SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) – This program is the nation’s most extensive domestic food assistance program, serving 42.1 million individuals each month. Around 26% of Black people received SNAP benefits in 2015.
- National School Lunch Program – This program provides free or reduced-price meals to lower-income students.
- Section 8 Housing Program – This program subsidizes the rent payments of low-income individuals to enable them to secure affordable housing. Black people constituted 45% of the recipients of this program in 2010.
- Medicaid – This joint federal-state program finances the delivery of primary and acute medical services to a diverse, low-income population. An estimated 16 million Black people enrolled in this program in 2012.
- Pell Grants – Data is used from the census to estimate the number of Pell Grants that will be awarded to college students each year.
- Highway spending – Funding for national infrastructure is apportioned according to census data.
WHEN AND WHERE DOES THE CENSUS TAKE PLACE?
“Census Day is April 1, 2020, and between March 12 and March 20, 2020, every household in the U.S. should receive a notice to complete the census.
This will be the first time in history that we have the option of completing the census in three ways:
- Online—via your laptop or mobile phone
MAKE IT COUNT—TAKE THE CENSUS, CHECK “BLACK,” GET CONNECTED.
Take the Census
The most important way that you can get involved in the census is to take it. And the good news is that the census is not long. You will answer basic questions about yourself and the people who stay with you.
2020 CENSUS QUESTIONS
- How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2020?
- Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2020, that you did not include in Question 1?
- Is this house, apartment, or mobile home [. . . owned with a mortgage, owned without a mortgage, rented, etc.]?
- What is your telephone number?
- What is Person 1’s name?
- What is Person 1’s sex?
- What is Person 1’s age and what is Person 1’s date of birth?
- Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin?
- What is Person 1’s race?
- Print name of Person 2.
- Does this person usually live or stay somewhere else?
- How is this person related to Person 1?
Undercounting of Black folks on the census can occur because of the way that the census labels us. In the first census, taken in 1790, the race categories were “White Males and White Females,” “All Other Free Persons,” and “Slaves.” (Not very empowering for us!) In 2020, the race category for Black people is called “Black or African American.” In fact, this year is the first time that the descriptor “Negro” is not included. What a difference 230 years makes!
In 2020, in addition to checking “Black or African American,”—you will be asked to provide more details about your specific origin (ethnic category), if known and desired. For example, you can write in “African American,” “Jamaican,” “Haitian,” “Nigerian,” “Ethiopian,” “Somali,” etc. Cultural identity is essential to Black people, especially those of us with known family immigration histories, and the 2020 census will afford us the opportunity to formally share our ethnicities. See example below.
“Former President Barack Obama, for example, was chided for not checking both the white and black race boxes and instead marking his race solely as “Black” on the 2010 census. Critics argued that he was denying his European ancestry. My guess is that Obama understood that these data are used to examine inequalities that have much more to do with “street race” than with whatever ethnic, familial or genetic origins one may have.”
We all show up in this world with the fullness of our intersections and identities, and we celebrate the diversity that makes up the African diaspora. And we can all attest to the experience of being Black in the U.S. Checking “Black” is a celebration of our diversity and our community’s historic and ongoing contributions to this nation. At the same time, checking “Black” will help to avoid an undercount of Black Americans in the 2020 census, which could have dire economic and political consequences for our community.
Part of the power of the census is that it’s an opportunity to stand up and be counted. You can also use the census to connect with civic organizations in your community and get more politically active. Because, as you know, there is another very important political activity taking place this year—the 2020 election! Below is a list of organizations that are working hard all year round to make sure that our voices count. Check them out and get involved!
The Undercounting of Black Folks from 1790 to Today
“Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other Persons.”
The U.S. has a long history of undercounting Black people. The first census, undertaken in 1790, followed the methodology set out in the “three-fifths compromise,” a clause in the U.S. Constitution that imposed a ratio for valuing enslaved people in relation to free people. In force until 1868, the three-fifths clause fractioned the personhood of enslaved people, defined enslaved people as inherently less than other people, and helped make enslavement the basis for a formal racial state. The three-fifths clause is about so much more than representation and taxation. It shaped and continues to shape the structure of American political institutions.
The legacy of this undercount serves as an indicator of who does and does not count (or matter) in this country. Today, many Black communities are still characterized as “hard to count.” For example, the map below shows a hard-to-count, majority Black community in Representative Karen Bass’s district.
Because representation and taxation inherently involve questions about what kinds of political demands can be imposed on the population, as well as which citizens are empowered to make such demands, they help mold the fundamental rules of government and what political actors can and cannot do. It is important that Black folks understand and push back against all systems and ideologies used to diminish our political power and agency as American citizens.
Prison Gerrymandering & Undercounting Returning Citizens
In many states, the practice of prison gerrymandering is a mechanism used to dilute the political representation of Black folks and blunt our power.
Here’s how it works.
The census counts incarcerated persons based on where they are incarcerated instead of where they lived before they were convicted. Due to the growth of prisons in rural America over the last 40 years, this has led to an overcount of rural populations and an undercount of urban communities that has had a significant political and financial impact on Black communities.
Federal funds are allocated to communities based on census counts. Undercounting incarcerated people can result in hundreds of thousands of dollars not going to Black communities where returning citizens will eventually reside, and where their families currently live. Additionally, counting incarcerated people as residents of the county in which they are incarcerated has a significant impact on congressional apportionment and can decrease representation for urban communities while increasing representation for rural areas.
Together, we can change prison gerrymandering to insure our communities get the resources we need and deserve. Many states, like New York, have done just that.
IS MY DATA PRIVATE? GOOD QUESTION!
IS MY DATA PRIVATE? GOOD QUESTION!
In Black communities, there continues to be widespread mistrust of the government and outsiders. The Trump administration’s recent (but unsuccessful) attempts to add a citizenship question to the census have made matters worse. You may be afraid that the Census Bureau will share your information with government agencies and others who could make things difficult. For example, you may fear the loss of safety net or public assistance benefits if the presence of a wage earner in your home is disclosed. You may fear the loss of housing if your landlord finds out that people who are not on the lease are staying in your home.
We understand your concerns, but please know that it is against the law for the Census Bureau to share individual data with anyone, and all responses to the census are confidential. We are hoping that you can be the trusted voice in your community to mitigate this real concern.
According to the Census Bureau,
“We will never share a respondent’s personal information with immigration enforcement agencies, like ICE; law enforcement agencies, like the FBI or police; or allow it to be used to determine their eligibility for government benefits. The results from any census or survey are reported in statistical format only.”
That said, it’s still important to be alert to fraud. The Census Bureau will not ask you for your bank account information, credit card number, or Social Security number. Do not complete forms that ask for this personal information.
BLACK WOMEN TO WATCH IN CIVIC ENGAGEMENT AND ORGANIZING
Completing the census is our civic duty and is one of the most important power-building actions we can take in 2020. It’s also a great time to get plugged into a civic engagement organization in your community. We’re proud to amplify the leadership of Black women across the nation who are doing critical power-building work all year round. Check them out!
MORE RESOURCES FOR YOU
STATE AND LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS
Action St. Louis (Missouri)
Center for Law and Social Justice (New York)
Community Coalition (California)
The Equity Alliance (Tennessee)
Mothering Justice (Michigan)
NC Counts Coalition (North Carolina)
One Voice (Mississippi)
Power Coalition for Equity and Justice (Louisiana)
Shirley’s Kitchen Cabinet (Missouri)
Workers Center for Racial Justice (Illinois)
2020 Census: Who’s at Risk of Being Miscounted? by Urban Institute
Counting for Dollars 2020: Fifty-five Large Federal Census-guided Spending Programs: Distribution by State by GW Institute of Public Policy
Race/Ethnicity and the 2020 Census by Census 20/20